Permanent Revolution, applied on Africa

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1 . The theory of permanent revolution

  • a . Marx : from the permanently ongoing Revolution to the passage

from the Russian “mir” to communism (letter to Vera Zassoulitch)

  • b . L. Trotsky, theoretician of the permanent revolution
    • i.The law of unequal and combined development
    • ii. Permanent revolution
    • iii. The transitional Program
  • c . The Revolutions in the Third World (China, Cuba)

2 . Revolution in Africa

  • a . The national, democratic and popular Revolution
  • b . Frantz Fanon and anti-colonialism (from Algeria to sub-Saharan


  • c . Amilcar Cabral and neo-colonialism

3 . The case of South-Africa

  • a . National consciousness and class consciousness
    • i.The Freedom Charter
    • ii. The National Forum and the Permanent Revolution
  • b . African National Congress/South-African Communist Party/COSATU

and post-Apartheid power

  • In the way of a conclusion


1. Excerpt from Leon Trotsky, The History of the Russian Revolution, Vol. I

2. Excerpt from Leon Totsky, Transitional Program for Socialist Revolution, 1938

3. Excerpt from Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 1963

4. Alexander Neville, "A view from the National Forum", Inprecor